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Chapter 13  Dependency generator (ocamldep)

The ocamldep command scans a set of Objective Caml source files (.ml and .mli files) for references to external compilation units, and outputs dependency lines in a format suitable for the make utility. This ensures that make will compile the source files in the correct order, and recompile those files that need to when a source file is modified.

The typical usage is:

        ocamldep options *.mli *.ml > .depend

where *.mli *.ml expands to all source files in the current directory and .depend is the file that should contain the dependencies. (See below for a typical Makefile.)

Dependencies are generated both for compiling with the bytecode compiler ocamlc and with the native-code compiler ocamlopt.

13.1  Options

The following command-line options are recognized by ocamldep.

-I directory
Add the given directory to the list of directories searched for source files. If a source file mentions an external compilation unit Bar, a dependency on that unit’s interface bar.cmi is generated only if the source for bar is found in the current directory or in one of the directories specified with -I. Otherwise, Bar is assumed to be a module from the standard library, and no dependencies are generated. For programs that span multiple directories, it is recommended to pass ocamldep the same -I options that are passed to the compiler.
Output raw dependencies of the form
      filename: Module1 Module2 ... ModuleN
where Module1, …, ModuleN are the names of the compilation units referenced within the file filename, but these names are not resolved to source file names. Such raw dependencies cannot be used by make, but can be post-processed by other tools such as Omake.
Generate dependencies for a pure native-code program (no bytecode version). When an implementation file (.ml file) has no explicit interface file (.mli file), ocamldep generates dependencies on the bytecode compiled file (.cmo file) to reflect interface changes. This can cause unnecessary bytecode recompilations for programs that are compiled to native-code only. The flag -native causes dependencies on native compiled files (.cmx) to be generated instead of on .cmo files. (This flag makes no difference if all source files have explicit .mli interface files.)
-pp command
Cause ocamldep to call the given command as a preprocessor for each source file.
Under Windows, use a forward slash (/) as the path separator instead of the usual backward slash (\). Under Unix, this option does nothing.
Print version string and exit.
Print short version number and exit.
-help or --help
Display a short usage summary and exit.

13.2  A typical Makefile

Here is a template Makefile for a Objective Caml program.

INCLUDES=                 # all relevant -I options here
OCAMLFLAGS=$(INCLUDES)    # add other options for ocamlc here
OCAMLOPTFLAGS=$(INCLUDES) # add other options for ocamlopt here

# prog1 should be compiled to bytecode, and is composed of three
# units: mod1, mod2 and mod3.

# The list of object files for prog1
PROG1_OBJS=mod1.cmo mod2.cmo mod3.cmo

prog1: $(PROG1_OBJS)
        $(OCAMLC) -o prog1 $(OCAMLFLAGS) $(PROG1_OBJS)

# prog2 should be compiled to native-code, and is composed of two
# units: mod4 and mod5.

# The list of object files for prog2
PROG2_OBJS=mod4.cmx mod5.cmx

prog2: $(PROG2_OBJS)
        $(OCAMLOPT) -o prog2 $(OCAMLFLAGS) $(PROG2_OBJS)

# Common rules
.SUFFIXES: .ml .mli .cmo .cmi .cmx

        $(OCAMLC) $(OCAMLFLAGS) -c $<

        $(OCAMLC) $(OCAMLFLAGS) -c $<

        $(OCAMLOPT) $(OCAMLOPTFLAGS) -c $<

# Clean up
        rm -f prog1 prog2
        rm -f *.cm[iox]

# Dependencies
        $(OCAMLDEP) $(INCLUDES) *.mli *.ml > .depend

include .depend

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